Smart conversation from the National Constitution Center
December 19, 2017 by
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The publication of Thomas Paine’s Common Sense caused a sensation in early 1776 as it explained the need for freedom. But it was a second series of pamphlets published on December 19 of that year that inspire a huge American military victory.
“These are the times that try men's souls: The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis, shrink from the service of their country; but he that stands it now, deserves the love and thanks of man and woman. Tyranny, like Hell, is not easily conquered; yet we have this consolation with us, that the harder the conflict, the more glorious the triumph,”
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The American Crisis , a new pamphlet that appeared in the Pennsylvania Journal.
Four days later, like a modern-day football coach seeking to inspire his team, General George Washington had Paine’s words read out loud to his troops at McKonkey’s Ferry on the Delaware River. Paine had written the words during the army’s retreat from New York.
The army’s commanders read the words to a force that include John Marshall, Alexander Hamilton, James Monroe and Aaron Burr.
Washington was literally at a crossroads. His opponent, General Howe, had offered pardons to local residents, and the re-enlistment period was ending for the volunteers in his army.
An inspired Washington and his troops, who adopted the motto “Victory or Death,” crossed the Delaware River during a Nor’easter on Christmas Day and routed the Hessian garrison at Trenton.
The much-needed victory galvanized the Revolutionary forces and the Continental Congress. Troops decided to enlist again as Washington’s forces won a second battle at Trenton and a key engagement at Princeton.
While American Crisis did much to inspire the troops, its fame was nowhere near that of Common Sense, which was the first viral mass communications event in America
The first version of Common Sense went viral, in the current sense of the word, when it hit the cobblestone streets here on January 9, 1776.
Common Sense sold 120,000 copies in its first three months, and by the end of the Revolution, 500,000 copies were sold. The estimated population of the Colonies (excluding its African-American and Native American populations) was 2.5 million.EU Immigration and Asylum Law and Policy
23 Friday Mar 2018
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, PhD, Senior Researcher, Institute of European Law, University of Fribourg nike air max 1 bred premium qsr
, Max Planck Institute for Social Law and Social Policy, Munich
As a reaction to the “unprecedented migratory flows”, the EU Commission issued a
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on 7 June 2016. The EU Partnership Framework essentially unites all actions of the EU Member States (individually and collectively) to combat smuggling and trafficking, to address “the fate of migrants and refugees” as well as to manage migration “in a sustainable way” and to fight against deaths at sea.
As part of the actions under the new Partnership Framework, measures to prevent irregular migration and irregular entries play a primary role (
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). These measures always take place in a legal grey zone, threatening to conflict with the obligations arising from international and European law and especially the prohibition of refoulement. While the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) has already provided a legal compass for measures at the borders and under the control of European states (see following paragraph), such guidance lacks for cooperation with third countries. The following article aims to provide such legal orientation, using the example of the central Mediterranean route.
Continue reading »
09 Friday Mar 2018
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Last year‘s general election was a game changer in German politics. The ‘grand coalition’ of Christian and Social Democrats, which had governed the federal republic from 2005-09 and 2013-17, lost considerably and won no less than 53.5 % of the vote (33 % for the CDU/CSU; 20.5% for the SPD). Moreover, a populist right-wing party entered the German Bundestag for the first time: the Alternative für Deutschland AfD which gained 12.6 % last September and continues to do well in opinion polls.
Clothing made from a reversible fabric could warm or cool wearers and keep them comfortable, bringing down buildings’ energy costs.
By Vicky Stein
Stanford researchers have developed a reversible fabric that, without expending effort or energy, keeps skin a comfortable temperature whatever the weather.
A new textile made from a reversible fabric could warm or cool wearers and keep them comfortable. Two layers of material with different abilities to release heat energy are stacked together and sandwiched between layers of polyethylene. (Image credit: Yi Cui Group)
In a paper published Nov. 10 in
, a team led by
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, professor of materials science and engineering, created a double-sided fabric based on the same material as everyday kitchen wrap. Their fabric can either warm or cool the wearer, depending which side faces out.
This project came out of Cui’s interest in energy efficiency and his expertise in manipulating nanoscale materials. He thought if people could be more comfortable in a range of temperatures, they could save energy on air conditioning and central heating.
“Why do you need to cool and heat the whole building? Why don’t you cool and heat individual people?” asked Cui.
Thirteen percent of all of the energy consumed in the United States is simply dedicated to indoor temperature control. But for every 1 degree Celsius (1.8 degrees Fahrenheit) that a thermostat is turned down, a building can save a whopping 10 percent of its heating energy, and the reverse is true for cooling. Adjusting temperature controls by just a few degrees has major effects on energy consumption.
Our bodies have many ways of controlling our temperature. When it’s cold, the hairs in our skin stand out to trap warm air. Eventually, we may start shivering to produce more radiant heat in our muscles. When it’s hot, we release heat as infrared radiation from our skin, and if we’re still warm we start to sweat. Water evaporating away from our bodies carries a large amount of heat with it. But those mechanisms only help within a few degrees. Get outside the temperature range to which our bodies can adapt, and we reach for the dial on the heating or air conditioning.
In 2016 the
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a first step toward a solution: fabric that allowed the body’s heat to pass through, cooling the skin. Although they were inspired by transparent, water-impermeable kitchen wrap, their new material was opaque, breathable and retained its ability to shuttle infrared radiation away from the body. Compared to a cotton sample, their fabric kept artificial skin 2 C cooler in a laboratory test – possibly enough to stop a person from ever reaching for a fan or the building thermostat. The team’s first textile could save a building full of workers 20 to 30 percent of their total energy budget.
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Public service is an integral part of a Stanford education. Through Cardinal Service, students can pursue one ofnearly500 full-time,quarter-long service opportunities, and more than 150 community-engaged learningcourses across more than 40 departments and programs. Now, students who complete a Cardinal Quarter or 12+ units of Cardinal Courses are eligible to have these commitments reflected on their academic transcript with the Cardinal Service Notation.
Since our founding, students at Stanford have made significant public service commitments – commitments that have enriched their academic pursuits and provided opportunities to apply their knowledge and skills to pressing social and environmental challenges. With the Cardinal Service Notation, Stanford can begin to formally recognize these commitments as part of students’ academic experience.
The Haas Center for Public Service invites all students who meet the eligibility requirements below to apply for the Cardinal Service Notation. Applications are accepted twice per year, in Autumn and Spring quarters.
Students who complete the requirements for both the Cardinal Quarter and the Cardinal Courses need only apply under one of the categories. We encourage you to choose the experience that most influenced your overall education and experience here at Stanford, and share with us why in your academic integration statement.
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for Spring 2018 is April 27, 2018 at 11:59pm.
Students are eligible for the Cardinal Service Notation after completing one of the following:
Students should satisfy their eligibility before applying. For example, a student completing a Cardinal Quarter in the autumn should wait to apply until the spring. Similarly, a student enrolled in a Cardinal Course in the spring should apply the following autumn.
To apply for the notation, students should complete the application . In the application students will be asked tosubmit a current unofficial transcript, as well as an academic integration statement (minimum 2000 words) responding to the following prompt:
Please describe your Cardinal Service experience, and discuss how this experience:
For more information, please contact Sarah McShea , Program Manager.
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